Silk screen printing or also known as screen printing, is a type of stencil printing. In Fine Art the technique is also called Serigraphy. Screen printing is the only major new printmaking development in the 20th century. Its origin, the stencil process, has been known to artists for centuries. This is a template method rather than printing techniques - one of the oldest techniques for stamping textiles. In 1907 the Englishman Samuel Siman announced by screen printing silk patented. The first use in Europe for making fonts and adverts - screen printing graphic art is created only in the fifties of the 20th century. This is one of the most popular printing techniques today.
The principle of screen printing, or silk screening, consists in applying stencils to a screen (constructed of silk or of some synthetic or metallic material), in such a way that when ink is applied it is prevented from passing through some parts while penetrating the rest of the screen, thereby printing an image on paper placed underneath. Stencils are an essential part of screen printing. Stencils are an essential part of screenprinting: they are attached to or incorporated with the screen to ensure that the ink passes through in the correct places. They can be made in many different forms. They can be made in many different forms, e. g. as a simple masking or covering stencil; as a "wash-out" stencil, which involves drawing the design on the screen in a greasy substance, then covering the whole screen with filler or gum, and finally dissolving the greasy image in turns, thereby forming a positive stencil; or as a photo-stencil, whereby photographic images are incorporated into the screen. Canned method with offset lithography printing is the only two ways in which the image is created as print, without turning.
The artist prepares a screen of silk, or synthetic. Those screens used to be made from silk (therefore silkscreen printing). Today most screens are nylon or polyester. The areas which should not print are masked or blocked out by stencils or by drawing or painting onto the screen with liquid screen fillers (insoluble). These parts remain unprinted on paper. These parts remain unprinted on paper. Today is a very common use of photographic emulsions, replacing hand-coloring process. So the artist can draws directly onto the screen or uses mainly photo chemically transferred images. The ink is applied through the sieve onto the paper by rubber raquel. Ink is pushed through tiny holes of a screen. Paper is placed under the stencil and ink is forced through. For each color a separate screen is prepared. Most suitable are bold, bright and strong images. Inks can be opaque or transparent. An artwork can be built up by as many as 50 or more different colored screens. Some of the multi-colored serigraphs much more like painting than graphics. Screen printing well be combined with or offset lithography - widespread in Japan. Apply and printing not only on paper, but on film, different kinds of canvases, aluminum, plexiglass and other plastics.
This was ideal for the pop artists in the 1960s, such as Warhol, Lichtenstein etc. who discovered screen printing as a popular new art form. Many contemporary artists use screen printing as the most suitable medium for their individual type of artwork. Some rare screen prints can have a price tag of $ 100,000 and more. Lichtenstein was still working in screen printing shortly before he died. One of his latest "Interior Series" fresh from the press had a release price of US $ 25,000 each print. This shows that serigraphs are definitely a recognised modern art form with potential for investment value.