This is the oldest and basic method for creating graphical footprint, introduced in China around 800 AD. Based on the principle of cutting and removal of the surface material (matrix) so that the imaging surface, to be printed stands out in relief, forming the printing area. Ink is transferred onto the printing surface with a roller, pad or sharp brush. The paper is placed on freshly inked surface and pressure through the ink penetrates the paper. Pressure can be achieved by using the press or by hand by rubbing the back of the paper with a bamboo or wooden device called barren. Some artists replace the barrens with the back of wooden spoon. In all relief techniques it is the surface of the block that is inked and printed and, given perfect printing, all lines or surfaces will be equally dark.